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0 0 0 o as .0..00.0 0 .
UNITED STATES PATENT 0 KFI E
WILLIAM HENRY PHILLIPS OF LANGTON PLACE NORTH BRIXTON ENGLAND.
APPARATUS FOR EXTINGUISHING FIRE.
Specification of Letters Patent No. dated April 9 1850.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I WILLIAnr HENRY Pm"Lips a subject of the Queen of Great Britain late of Bloomsburg Square in the
5 county of Middlesex but now residing at Langton Place North Brixton in the county of Surrey engineer have invented or discovered certain new and useful Improvements in Means and Apparatus for Subdu
10 ing and Extinguishing Fire and I the said NILLIAIr HENRYPHILLrns do hereby declare the nature of my invention and the manner in which the same is to be performed are fully described and ascertained in and by the
15 following statement thereof reference be ing had to the drawings hereunto annexed and to the figures and letters marked thereon that is to say.
The invention consists in generating in
20 large quantities and with great rapidity car
bonic acid gas and other gases resulting
from combustion and discharging such
gases while intermixed with steam or vapor
of water upon or about any burning mass
25 and diffusing the same into the atmosphere
where fire is burning for the purpose of sub
duing and extinguishing fire. This object
I have found can be effected in the most
advantageous manner by the use of certain
30 materials hereinafter described which ma
terials I employ in the apparatus described
and referred to in the accompanying draw
ings herewith deposited. But although the
particular ingredients will be found to an
35 swer the purpose in a most satisfactory man
ner I do not intend to confine myself ex
clusively to the employment of them alone
as other substances or materials may be
found to answer the purpose the object be
40 ing as above mentioned to generate the gases
and vapor in large quantities and in a very
rapid manner so as to arrest the progress of
a raging fire almost instantaneously by de
privmg the air of that degree of purity re
45 quisite to support vivid combustion or by
supplying gases and vapor to the fire to be
extinguished which mixture of gases and
vapor have the effect of displacing the ordi
nary atmosphere and thus stop the progress
50 of combustion the materials and the propor
tions which I have found to answer the pur
pose satisfactory are as follows : Fifteen
pounds of wood charcoal powdered fine
five pounds of coke or anthracite coal pow
55 dered fine sixty pounds nitrate of potash or
refined saltpeter reduced to powder five
pounds of gypsum (plaster of Paris) ten pounds of strong size these materials I mix well together and being intimately mixed I denominate them the gas evolving corn 60 pound. In order to have gases and other products of combustion under perfect command and ready to be brought into play at any required time the apparatus shown in the accompanying drawing is to be em 65 ployed.
Description of the drawings. a a is a cylindrical vessel closed at top and bottom forming a water chamber A about the cylindrical body b b c c is a strong flanch upon 70 which the top plate d d is secured with wrought iron bolts and nuts e e are tubes connected together at right angles forming passages to allow a flow of water from the water chamber A to the inside of cylinder b 75 the end of these passages at e* are closed and the surfaces of the upper openings are ground flat so as to allow a water tight joint to be made by the valves and washers f. The valves and washers are secured to 80 the square rods g g which extend above the top of the water chamber these rods g g are for the purpose of raising or depressing the valves. The valves are kept in a centrical position over their seats by guide tubes ii ii 85 the lower ends of which tubes are perforated in order that when the valves f are raised by the rods g water may flow from the chamber A through the passage e into the cylinder b i is a cylindrical vessel open at 90 top and closed at bottom and having perforationsor holes as shown in detached vertical section Fig. 5j is a conically formed vessel having its larger end open and made of a bell mouth or spreading form and per 95 forated shown in section Fig. 6 k is a vessel formed conically so as to fit within the vessel j this vessel is closed at bottom and open at top as shown detached in Fig. 7 1 is a cylindrical vessel closed at top its lower end
being open and of a bell mouth form and perforated as shown detached in section Fig. 8 m in are projections attached to the top plate d for the purpose of preventing the cylindrical vessel 1 from being raised by in ternal pressure n n are outlets or passages through which the gases and vapors pass the lower part of these passages are perforated as shown in section n Figs. 2 and 3 the unionjoints n are for the purpose of con necting them with branch pipes or hose o o are pipes communicating to within the cy.
lindrical vessel 1 they are provided with caps o'' made to screw over the top ends these caps have each a hole in the center to allow the free passage of the pin u p p
5 are tubes having caps p* to screw off and on these caps have also a hole in the center to allow the pin a to pass through these parts are shown on a larger scale at Fig. 9 q q are tubes of glass containing a mixture of
to equal parts by weight of powdered chlorate of potash and powdered loaf sugar well mixed together in a dry state the tubes q q have rims to allow them to rest on the metal tubes p pr r are bottles hermetically
15 sealed containing a few drops of sulfuric acid these glass vessels being inclosed within the metal tube as shown in section on an enlarged scale Fig. 9 I term igniters as they are employed to ignite the gas evolving corn
20 pound contained in vessel Ics s are supports fixed on the top plate carrying levers t t to the ends of these levers the pins or rods u are connected by pin joints v v are worms or screw rods jointed to the tops of
25 the rods g g and also to the end of the levers t t the screw rods are made to pass through the nut w w which have corresponding female screws through the plates x x screwed on to the top plate d form
30 collars round the neck of the nuts w for the purpose of holding them in their proper positions so that by turning round the nuts w by means of the arms or levers y the screw rods v v are made to ascend or descend by which the valve f may be opened or closed while at the same time the pins u are depressed or raised.
Having explained the construction of the
apparatus I will now describe the mode of
40 charging and preparing the same ready to
be brought into operation. Previous to
charging the apparatus the valve f should
be proved to be in proper condition and the
other parts should be well cleaned and dried
45 a lining of brown paper and plaster of
Paris about one eighth of an inch thick
placed ins the vessel le the gas evolving com
pound mixture above described is then to be
put into its place in the vessel k (Fig. 7) the
5o vessels i j le 1 are then to be placed in the
order in which they are shown Figs. 2 3
and 4 the top plate d with its appendages is
then to be fixed on with' the bolts and nuts
and the joint made good with plaster of
55 Paris or other such luting. The rods g and
v are to be jointed together by a pin or screw
at v* and the valve f closed by turning the
lever y attached to the nut w so as to de
press the rods g and valve f. The valves
60 being closed water is to be poured into the
chamber A through the aperture z until it is
filled up to the vent hole z'' the vent hole and
aperture are then to be closed. The tubes
p containing the igniting materials are then
65 placed within the tubes o o the caps o* o'*
are then screwed on the pins u are introduced into the holes made to receive them and the pins or screws s" are put into their places to form axes for levers. Strong canvas hose of close texture and double seamed may be connected on by the unions n'" for the purpose of directing the gases and vapors evolved upon the burning materials where fire is to be extinguished a spiral of strong wire should be placed within the hose to insure a free. passage for the gases and vapors to be discharged: The apparatus thus charged and prepared for use should be conveyed into the' room or chamber where fire is raging or into the immediate vicinity of the fire to be extinguished the mouth pieces of the hose are then to be led to as near the burning materials as circumstances will allow a half turn of each of the levers y repeated alternately until the worm rods v v are made to ascend to their full limit will by opening the valves f allow water to flow into the cylinder b while each pin is alternately being made to descend through the guide holes in the caps o''' o'' when the pins are made to pass through the glass bottles containing the sulfuric acid a drop of which falling upon the mixture of chlorate of potash and sugar instantaneous ignition is caused when the inflamed mixture bursts the glass that contains it and falling upon the gas evolving compound in vessel Ic causes the upper surface to ignite and to commence deflagrating with great rapidity.
The gases. evolved by the combustion of the materials pass through the holes or perforations on the upper part of the vessel j in a highly heated state and pressing down the surface of water about the cylinder pass through the perforations in the vessel 1 and ascending through a quantity of water between 1 and b escape through passages n and ultimately through the mouth pieces
at the end of the hose during the passage of the gases through the water between 1 and b their temperature is considerably reduced whilst that' of the water is raised and vapor or steam is rapidly generated and delivered intermixed with the gaseous products set free by the deflagration of the gas evolved material employed. The mixed atmosphere of gases and vapor produced and given off are of that nature that wherever dense clouds
of them are thrown upon materials on fire they immediately extinguish the flame the red combustion and heat are also reduced and extinguished by the temporary exclusion of atmospheric air and substitution of the humid clouds of gases and vapors evolved as above described. The charge of the gas evolving materials will be very quickly burned out and if it be considered that the fire of that extent that a small apparatus will not evolve a sufficient quantity of the
80 85 90
above mentioned gases and vapor two or
more apparatus of adequate size may be em
ployed either together or in succession as it
is evident that the power requisite to pre
5 serve any quantity of property from de
struction by fire must be proportionate to
the extent of the fire raging at the time of
operation. The apparatus above described
and referred to is drawn upon a quarter
10 scale of those intended for use in rooms or
chambers of ordinary size in moderate
private dwellings. The size may be increased
in any degree required and the proportions
and arrangements of the parts may also be
15 varied without departing from the nature
of the invention which is in substance and
means as above described the rapid genera
tion of gases from material while in a state
of combustion and the means of diffusing
20 gases while intermixed with steam or vapor
into the space where the fire is burning for
the purposes of subduing and extinguishing destructive fires which is to be effected as above described by the employment of one
or more apparatus according to the extent 25 and intensity of the fire to be extinguished.
I would remark that I have not found it necessary to apply any safety valve to the apparatus but if desired a safety valve may
be applied to each apparatus. 30
What I claim is
The means of subduing and extinguishing fire by generating carbonic acid gas and other gases resulting from combustion in apparatus substantially as herein described 35 and applying them by the pressure of their generation to the purposes above described.
W. H. PHILLIPS.
JOSEPH MARQUETTE WILLIAM EWING.