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A GOULD & C. MARSH
KEYBOARD FOR PIANOS.
Patented May 17 1859
ILTIT D STATESS A_ E ; - OFFICE.
ALFRED GOULD AND CYRUS MARSH OF SENECA FALLS. NEW YORK.
ARRANGEMENT OF KEYBOARD FOR PIANOS &c.
Specification of Letters Patent No. dated May 17 1859.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that we ALFRED GOULD and
CYRRUS MARSH of Seneca Falls in the county
of Seneca and State of New York have in-5 vented a new and Improved Arrangement of the Keyboard of Pianofortes Organs Melodeons and other Musical Instruments Similarly Played; and we do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof reference being had to the accompanying drawings making part of this specification Figure 1 being a view in perspective of our improved key-board as we generally arrange it; and Fig. 2 a view in perspective of a modification thereof.
Like letters designate corresponding parts in both figures.
Instead of arranging the tones of the dia-
tonic scale in one range or bank of keys and
20 the intermediate tones which complete the
chormatic scale in another range of keys as
in the common key-board we employ dif-
ferent ranges of keys so arranged that those
of one range uniformly alternate in position 25 with those of the adjacent range or ranges and the tones of each range are in order all at intervals of a whole-step one above an-other while those of one range are in order all at intervals of a half-step above or below those of the next alternating keys of the adjacent range or ranges; so that by the employment of two adjacent ranges of keys all the tones of the chromatic scale are uniformly produced in succession. Each range that contains the C or fundamental tone of the diatonic scale also contains D E. Fn G A C or in the scales of fiat (b) signature D E Gb Ab Bb C; and each range adjacent to the above contains C# D? F G A B C# or in scales of flat (b) signature Db ED F G A B Db; as indicated in the drawings.
The important advantage to be derived
from the above arrangement is first if two
45 ranges of keys are used that only two modes
of fingering are required for all the twelve
different scales one for those commencing
on the several keys of one range and the
other for those commencing on the respec-
tive keys of the other range; and second if
three ranges of keys are used only one mode
of fingering is required for all the scales
since (as is apparent in Fig. 1 ) the third range of keys bears precisely the same relation to the second range as the second bears 55 to the first range of keys the fingering in any one scale requiring only two adjacent ranges of keys. Hence with the three-range key-board instead of requiring twelve different modes of fingering to be learned as is the case with the common key-board when one mode of fingering has been mastered the player at once becomes able to perform in any scale or key. Thus the labor of learning to play is greatly shortened. The player can at once play any piece of music set in any key as well in any other as in the key in which it is set on the written score.
It is evident that the third range of keys is precisely the same as the first; and it may be connected therewith or with the same strings wires reeds or pipes as may be most convenient or desirable ; our invention not relating to the mechanism by which the sounds are produced beyond the keys of the 75 key-board. In performing some difficult
pieces or fingering some intricate chords it may be convenient and desirable to add a fourth range of keys a duplicate of the second; and we sometimes thus construct the 80 key-board. But this is not of such essential importance as the second and third range of keys as above described. Three ranges of keys compose the key-board for general use.
The keys of each range may be situated contiguous to one another; and the! range placed one behind and raised somewhat higher than another as represented in Fig.
1; or one range may be placed the keys al- 90 ternately between those of another and somewhat raised above them as in Fig. 2 though the raising of one range above an-other is not essential but desirable. And the alternate keys of one range may extend for- 95 ward the whole length of those of the intermediate range in which case two ranges would be in one row; or may be as shown in Fig. 2 similarly to the ordinary arrangement of black and white keys. 100
In order to guide the eyes in fingering certain keys in the different octaves may be of different colors from others; or otherwise equivalently marked or designated. An-
60 65 70
other mode would be to have certain keys in the different octaves raised a little above the others both to guide the sight and the touch. In this manner all the advantages now
5 gained by raised black keys can be obtained.
What we claim as our invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is
The arrangement of two three or more ranges of keys of the key-board in the man-] and in relation to each other substan-
tially as and for the purposes herein specified.
ALFRED GOULD. Witnesses to signature of Alfred Gould : S. S. VInLE
L. F. S. VIRLn.
Witnesses to signature of Cyrus Marsh : O. P. HALL
R. G. DORT.