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3 SheetsSheet 1.
T. A. EDISON.
No. 689 168 Pat d Aug. 31 1897
3 SheetsSheet 2.
T. A. EDISON.
Patented Aug 31 1897.
(No Model.) 3 SheetsSheet 3.
T. A. EDISON
No Patented Aug 31; 1897.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
THOMAS A. EDISON OF LLEWELLIN PARK NEW JERSEY. KINETOGRAPHIC CAMERA.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. dated August 31 1897.
Application filed Iowa 24 1891. Serial No 403 534 (No model)
To all whom it may concern: periods of motion since with some subjects
Be it known that I THOMAS A. EDISON a a speed as low as thirty pictures per second citizen of theU?nitedStates residing at Mew- or oven lower is sufficient and while it is de- 55 ellyn Park in the county of Essex and State sirable to make the periods of rest as much
5 of New Jersey have invented a certain new longer than the periods of motion as possible and useful Improvement in .Iiinetoseopes any excess of the periods of rest over the pe-
(Case No. 925 ) of which the following is a riods of motion is advantageous.
specification. in the accompanying drawings forming a 6o The purpose I have in view is to produce part hereof Figure 'I is a plan view with the top of the easing removed of a form of apparatus which I have found highly useful for the taking of the photographs. Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section on line x x in 65 Fig. 1. Figs. 3 and 1 are enlarged views of the stop mechanism of the photographing apparatus. Figs. o and ti are plan views of two different forms of shutters for the photo-graphing apparatus and Fig. 7 is a perspec- ryo tive view of a section of the tape-film with the photographs thereon.
Referring to the drawings 3 indicates the transparent or translucent tape-film which before the apparatus is put in operation. is 75 all coiled on a reel in the sheet-metal box or case 1 the free end being connected to an empty reel in the case 2. The film 3 is preferably of sufficient width to admit the taking
of pictures one inch in diameter between the 8o rows of holes 1 Figs. 2 and 7 arranged at regular intervals along the two edges of the film and into which holes the teeth of the wheels 5 Figs. 1 and 2 enter for the purpose of positively advancing the film. When the 85 film is narrow it is not essential to use two rows of perforations and two feed-wheels one feed-wheel being sufficient. Said wheels are mounted on a shaft 0 which carries a loose pulley 7hat is a pulley frictionally eon- 90 netted to its shaft and forming a yielding mechan cal connection. This pulley is driven by a cord or belt 8 from a pulley 9 on the shaft 10 which shaft is driven by means of the beveled gears 11 12. The wheel 12 is 45 preferably driven by an electric motor 18 which when the apparatus is in use is regulated to run at the desired uniform speed being controlled by the centrifugal governor
to pictures representing objects in motion throughout an extended period of time which may be utilized to exhibit the scene including such moving objects in a perfect and natural manner by means of a suitable exhibit-
15 ing apparatus such as that described in an application filed simultaneously herewith (Patent No. 493 430 dated March 11 1803.) I have found that it is possible to accomplish this end by means of photography.
ao In carrying out my invention I employ an apparatus for effecting by photography a representation suitable for reproduction of a scene including a moving object or objects comprising a means such a single camera
25 for intermittently projecting at such rapid rate as to result in persistence of vision images of successive positions of the object or objects in motion as observed from a fixed and single point of view a sensitized tape-
30 like film and a means for so moving the film as to cause the successive images to be received thereon separately and in single-line sequence. The movements of the tape-film may be continuous or intermittent but the
35 latter is preferable and it is further prefer-able that the periods of rest of the flue should be longer than the periods of movement.
By taking the photographs at a rate sufficientlyhigh as to result in persistence of vision
40 the developed photographs will wheubrought successively into view by an exhibiting apparatus reproduce the movements faithfully and naturally
I have been able to take with a single mm-
45 era and a tape-film as many as forty-six photographs per second each baying a size measured lengthwise of the tape of one inch and
I have also been able to hold the tape at rest 11 and the circuit-controller 15 in a well- Too for nine-tenths of the time; but I do not tvjsi.t known manner. Oil the shaft 10 is another
5o to limit the scope of my invention to this pulley 10 which is connected by cross-belt high rate of speed nor to this great dispro- 17 to a pulley 16 also frictionally connected portion between the periods of rest and the to its shaft and which carries the reel to
.^ 3;3 18
which the tape is connected in easing 2. Time 1 26 or on any suitable shaft dab. cu by the mofilm passes from the casing 1 through a slit tor is a revolving disk 31 serving as a shut-formed by the edge 19 and. the sliding door ter for alternately exposing and covering the 70 20 w hich is normally thrown forward by the sensitive film. This disk which is eontinu-
5 spring 21 Fig. 2 with sufficient force to j onsla revolving is provided with six or any clamp the film and hold it from mot-meat. other suit able number of apertures 32 at regn-When the door 20 is retracted by palling on lar intervals around it near the edge they be-the rod or string 22 which is connected to ing so arranged that one of the apertures 75 the arm 22' the film is liberated and allowed passes directly between the camera-lens 33
to to advance. Film ease 2 is provided with a and the film each time the film is brought to similar door but the device for moving the rest the light-rays passing through the open-door is not illustrated. This arrangement of ing 33' and falling on the film half-way be-the sliding door not only holds the film but tureen the reels on which the film is wound- So it tightly closes the casing this excluding 31- is a device for idjustiugthecamera-lens
15 light and protecting the sensitive film. The toward or from the film and 35 is a device by casings or boxes 1 2 are removable so that means of which the operator can focus the they with the inclosed film may he taken camera on the object to be photographed. bodily from the apparatus. The shaft 6 While I have described the use of an inter- 85 heretofore referred to is provided with a de- mittently-moving film and a shutter having
zo tent or stop-wheel 23 the form of which is several openings so arranged as to expose the most clearly shown rn Figs. 3 and 4. The film at proper intervals it would be possible wheel 23 is provided with a number of pro- and within my invention to use a continujecting teeth 2-1 six being shown which teeth ously moving film and also to use a shutter 90 are adapted to strike successively against with a single opening. as shown in big. 6 the
25 the face of the cooperating detent or stop- shutter revolving at a high rate of speed. wheel 25 on the shaft 26 tvºhich is the aroma- ; To make the apparatus move the film conture-shaft of the motor or a shaft which is ] Iinuously it will only be necessary to omit constantly driven by the motor. The wheel the stop-wheels 23 and 25 which arrest the 95 25 has a corresponding number of notches 27 rotation of the shaft 6.
30 at regular intervals around its periphery. Although the operation has been partially hheee notches ire of such size and shape that indicated in the description of the apparatus the teeth 24 can pass through them and it will now be set forth more in detail.
when the wheels 23 and 25 are rotated in the The apparatus is first charged with a sent-
direction indicated by the arrows each tooth snit -et tape-film several hundred or even thou-
35 in succession will strike the face of wheel 23 sands of feet long and the motor is set in op-thereby bringing the flint absolutely to rest oration. Since the spring 21 causes the door at the same moment that an opening in the 20 to clamp the film as already described shutter exposes the film and will then pass the loose pulleys 7 lSslip without pulling said 105 through a notch allowing the tape-film to be film along but when a moving objectfor
40 moved forward another step while it is cow- example a man gesticulatingis placed in erect by the shutter. To avoid the danger of the field of the camera and the handle 22 the wheel. 25 moving so quickly that a tooter pulled the film is released and the pulleys op-cannot enter the proper notch a laterally- crate to pull the same along. At the same do projecting tooth 29 is provided adjacent to time the reel in ease 2 is rotated to wind up
45 each notch. When a tooth 20 strikes atooth the film thus transferring it from the reel in 24 the latter tooth. will be guided by the tooth case 1 to the reel in case 2. In the apparatus 29 into the adjacent notch 27. shown in Fig. 1 this movement is not con-
30 is a detent spring or pawl to prevent tinuous but asalreadyindicated isintermit- 115. backward movement of the wheel 23. tent the film advancing by very rapid steps
5o I prefer to so proportion the parts above de- which are definitely and positively controlled scribed that the wheel 23 is at rest for nine- bymeans ofthepeeuliardetentorescapement tenths of the time in order to give to the sen- described and a photograph is taken after sitized film as long an exposure as practicable each step. 120
and is moving forward one-tenth of the time While I do not care to limit myself to any
55 and said forward movement is made to take particular number of steps per second there place thnty or more times per second pref should be at least enough so that the eye of erhbly at least as high as forty-six times per an observer cannot distinguish or at least second although the rapidity of movement cannot clearly and positively distinguish at 125 or number of times per second may be regu a glance a difference in the position occupied
6o lated as desired to give satisfactory results. ! by the object in the successive pictures as The longer interval of rest of the film insures illustrated in Fig 7 A less speed in taking a good impression of the object projected the pictures will cause a trembling or jerky thereon and results in a picture having clean appearance in the reproduced picture. When 130 and sharp lines since the film has sufficient I the movement of the object being photo-
65 time to become steady and overcome the vi- I graphed has ceased or the desired number of oration caused by the sudden and rapid me- photographs has been obtained the apparations of the feed mechanism. On the shaft tas is stopped. The film is suitably treated
for developing and fixing the pictures when suitable for the exhibition of objects in moit is ready for use in an exhibiting apparatus. tion having in combination a single camera
What I claim is and means for passing a sensitized tape-film
l An apparatus for effecting by photogra- across the lens at a high rate of speed and
5 phy a representation suitable for reproduc- with an intermittent motion and for expostion of a scene including a moving object or ing successive portions of the film during objects co prisingameansforintermittently the periods of rest the periods of rest being projecting at such rapid rate as to result in greater than the periods of motion substanpersistence of vision images of successive po- tally as set forth.
to sitionsof the object or objects in motion as 5. An unbroken transparent or translucent observed from a fixed and single point of i tape-like photographic film having thereon view a sensitized tape-like film and a means equidistant photographs of successive posifor so moving the film as to cause the succes- bons of an object in motion all taken from sive images to be received thereon separately the same point of view such photographs be-
rg and in a single-line sequence. ing arranged in a continuous straight-line se-
2. An apparatus for taking photographs quence unlimited in number save by the suitable for the exhibition of objects in mo- length of the film substantially as described. tion having in combination a single camera G. An unbroken transparent or translucent and means for passing a sensitized tape-film tape-likephotographie film provided with per-
20 at a high rate of speed across the lens of the forated edges and having thereon equidistant camera and for exposing successive portions photographs of successive positions of an obof the film in rapid succession substantially jectin motion all taken from the same point as set forth. of view such photographs being arranged in
3. Au apparatus for taking photographs a continuous straight-line sequence unlim-
25 suitable for the exhibition of objects in mo- ited in number save by the length of the film Lion having in combination a single camera substantially as described.
and means for passing a sensitized tape-film This specification signed and witnessed this 6o across the lens of the camera at a high rate 31st day of July 1891.
of speed and with an intermittent motion and 1'IIOS. A. EDISON. 3o for exposing successive portions of the film
during the periods of rest substantially as set Witnesses:
forth. JOHN F. RANDoLPH
4. An apparatus for taking photographs FREDERICK OTT.
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