This print is a quality reproduction of the original filed patent artwork titled above. The displayed image above is a low-resolution graphic optimized for quick web display. The actual print you receive will be a detailed high-resolution print free of any defects or watermarks.
The artwork is printed in black on archival quality acid-free 8 1/2" x 11" simulated parchment stock replicating the authentic look and feel of the original patent. The actual artwork image size varies according to the original document but your print can be readily cropped to fit an 8" x 10" display frame.
This prestigious museum quality print is perfect for framing or mounting as you wish in any home or office as decorative wall art. Keep for yourself or great for gift giving to the avid collector. Great conversational piece!
Also included at no extra-charge are the remaining patent text and drawing pages (when applicable) describing this invention in detail. Most patents include a copy of the inventor's original signature (or signed by their patent attorney) on the artwork. Fascinating reading!
These are not construction plans or blueprints. This print is perfect for the collector who wants historical background on the above item. Some of the text may be hard to read but the illustrations are enhanced to meet or exceed the originally submitted patent artwork design and at the same time maintaining an authentic look from that era.
The following information was scanned and read with OCR directly from a copy of the original patent. We apologize for any difficulty in reading the OCR text; however it will give you a very good idea of the background of the patent print you will receive.
H. A. HACKELING. PLANETARIUM.
APPLIOATION FILED JULY28. 1900
PATENTED JULY 2 1907.
4 SHEETSSHEET 1.
H NORRIS PET ERS WASHINGTON O. O.
PATENTED JULY 2 1907.
H. A. HACKELING. PLANETARIUM.
APPLIOATION FILED JULY 28 1908.
TNC DODD'S FiE RS CO.. DOSNINDTON. D. c.
H. A..HACBELING. PLANETARIUM.
APPLIOATION FILED JULY2B 1906.
PATENTED JULY 2 1907.
U a N
OF Ir P.
ut d o
J k h
a it t
4 SHEETSSHEET 3.
THE PET ER L.. A5..GTO.
PATENTED JULY 2 1907.
H. A. HACKELING PLANETARIUM.
APPLIOATION FILED JULY 28 1908.
CRITIC HHS£N5 .. WASHINGTON O. C.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
HERMANN A. HACKELING OF NEW YORK N. Y.
No. . Specification of Letters Patent. Patented July 2 1907.
Application filed July 28 1906 Serial No .
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I HERMANN A. HACRILING a citizen of the United States residing in New York in the borough of Manhattan county and State of New York
5 have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Planetariums of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to an improved planetarium by which the motions of the planets around the sun
10 their relations to each other as well as the motions of the earth and moon can be illustrated in all their different phases.
The planetariums heretofore constructed were complicated and expensive and they were on that account
15 only within the reach of the higher institutions of science and learning.
The object of this invention is to furnish a planetarium which. can be supplied at a comparatively small cost and by which on a small scale the motions of the
20 planets around the sun within the starry belt of the celestial field known as the zodiac the various positions of the planets relatively to each other to the constellations of the zodiac the ecliptic the sun and earth are illustrated in addition to the inclination of the
25 planetary orbits towards the ecliptic the effects resulting from the axial inclination of the planets towards their respective orbits are explained and by means of specially prepared tables the planets can be arranged in their proper positions for any date of the year ac
30 cording to their true longitude and latitude on the ecliptic so that their configurations (conjunction opposition quadrature greatest elongation east and west transits occultations morning and evening star) at any date in the year may be brought into direct view and
35 their apparent motions (directly advancing stationary and retrograde) be clearly explained.
In addition to the motions and positions of the planets relatively to the ecliptic sun and earth the changing conditions on the earth's surface resulting from the
40 earth's axial inclination towards its orbit and its changing position towards the sun are illustrated while a terrestrial globe in connection with the moon will illustrate the phenomena conditioned by the relative position of these two bodies towards the sun while the
45 changing relations of heavenly bodies on the celestial sphere in reference to the horizon of any place on the earth's surface are illustrated by a horizonring arranged on and movable around said terrestrial globe.
For this purpose the invention consists of a planeta
50 rium which comprises an upright standard representing the axis of the ecliptic a basedisk supported stationary on the standard a number of planets supported by angular arms on the upright standard in such a manner as to be rotated around the same or secured in fixed
position thereon by suitable clamps and a combined 55 zodiacbelt and equinoctialring supported by upright angular arms on the basedisk and surrounding the planets supported on the standard.
The invention consists further of a terrestrial globe with the moon supported on a curved arm and a hori 60 zonring on said globe movable around the terrestrial globe and adapted to illustrate the changing relations of the earth relatively to the heavenly bodies with reference to the horizon of any place on the earth's surface. 65
The invention consists further of a terrestrial globe with the moon supported on a curved arm and provided with a hemispherical cap or shell of shining color covering the illuminated hemisphere of the moon's dark body and movable around the moon's axis so that according to 7 0 the moon's position with respect to sun and earth the proper part of the illuminated hemisphere can be turned toward the earth to illustrate the moon's phases.
The invention consists further of additional details
in the construction of the basedisk with the surround 75 ing representation of the zodiac and ecliptic and other details as will be fully described hereinafter and finally pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings Figure 1 represents a perspective view of my improved planetarium show 80 ing the basedisk and the zodiacbelt with the ecliptic and the equinoctialring supported on an upright centerstandard and the sun and planets arranged within said zodiacbelt and equinoctial ring Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the planetarium showing the base 85 disk sun and planets as supported on the centerstandard but with the zodiacbelt and equinoctial ring removed Fig. 3 is a planview of the basedisk drawn on an enlarged scale Figs. 4 and 5 are detail elevations of onehalf each of the zodiacbelt and ecliptic 90 ring with the ecliptic developed into a plane Fig. 6 is a detail of a terrestrial globe with a horizonring and the moon with its shell Fig. 7 is a modified construction of the terrestrial globe and Figs. 8 9 and 10 are different details of construction. 95
Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in the several figures of tire drawings.
In the drawings a represents the basedisk which is supported centrally in stationary position on an upright standard s provided with an enlarged and weight ed base s'. On the basedisk are represented in concentric rings first a terrestrial seasondial second a calendardial third an ecliptic longitudedial and fourth a zodiacal dial. On the upper end of the upright standard s representing the axis of the ecliptic is supported a large sphere c which represents the sun while a number of planets d are supported on angular arms d' the arms being of such size and height as to
locate the planets at their respective distance centrally
from the sun and made smaller and larger according
to their size the terrestrial planets being made on
account of their smallness as compared with the major
5 planets in the proportion of 6 to 1. The angular arms
are connected by means of sleeves e to the upright
standard s so as to be readily rotated and lengthwise
movable thereon and capable of being clamped into
fixed position by clamping thumbscrews er. A zodiac
10 belt f and equinoctialcircle f 1 are supported on an
gular arms p f1 which are attached to the basedisk
a and surround the planets the constellations of the
zodiac being arranged on the inner surface of the belt f.
The basedisk.The basedisk is made of a plain cir
15 cular disk of any suitable material such as pasteboard
wood or metal and printed in appropriate colors. It
serves a double purpose: first as a support for the
whole structure and secondly for representing on its
faceside all the points of the planetary orbits which
20 have relation to the plane of the ecliptic. The base
disk is divided into four concentric divisions called
"dials." The central division or terrestrial season
dial illustrates the relations pertaining to the earth's
yearly revolution. It illustrates the four seasons of the
25 year their beginning and duration and shows on its
border the corresponding seasonal signs of the ecliptic
with the responding constellations of the zodiac named
and it also gives the time required by the earth to pass
along each of them while performing its yearly course
30 around the sun. Concentric with the central terres
trial seasondial is arranged a calendardial. It ex
hibits in different radial fields or panels the months
and days of the year arranged in ten columns for each
sign of the ecliptic radially to the circumference of the
35 dial so that the days in each column correspond to 3º of
longitude of the ecliptic which are designated on the
next concentric dial the socalled "longitudedial."
Concentric with the calendardial and outside and
inclosing the calendardial is arranged a ring repre
40 senting the longitudedial of the ecliptic. It is di
vided into three concentric rings of equal width. The
middle ring represents the ecliptic longitude proper
the º being marked off in spaces of 3º each space
of 3º answering to the dates carried in the correspond
45 ing columns of the calendardial so that the date in
each column points out the degree of longitude at which
the earth has arrived in its orbit while the degree of
longitude points to the date at which the earth will be
at that degree of longitude. The column in the calen
50 dardial containing four dates indicates the slower mo
tion of the earth along the ecliptic sign correspond
ing to the respective month and the fourth day bal
ances the difference in motion except the column in
March where the fourth day is inserted to equalize
55 the 29th day of February in a leap year. On the rings
outside and inside of the middle one the longitudes of
the orbital points of the planets are indicated for the
year 1900 in the inner ring those for the terrestrial and
in the outer ring those for the major planets. The
60 third concentric division the zodiacal dial displays
the zodiacal constellations midway of which the eclip
tic is traced by a specially heavy concentric line.
The principal stars from first to fifth magnitude com
posing the constellations are placed most approxi
mately to longitude and latitude on the ecliptic with 65 their names and those belonging to the same cons' tion connected by leadlines. A number of conspicuous stars situated outside but near the limits of (lie zodiac and partly reckoned to the zodiacal constellations are also represented within a zone of 5º north 7(1 and 5º south of the zodiac proper but on a Background which is distinguished in color from that given to the zodiac or separated by specially drawn lines. The encircling border of the dial shows the Latin names of
the constellations and the signs of the ecliptic. The 75 dial is given to enable the illustration of longitude caul the configuration of the planetary bodies without tiro special zodiacal belt.
The horizontal portions of the arms supporting the planets correspond in length to the distance from the SO sun while the vertical portions of the anus which carry the planets directly are of such length that the planet when in one of its nodes is in line with the plane passing through the ecliptic on the zodiacring and the center of the sun. Between the sleeves on which the $5 arms are supported on the upright standard s proper space is left so as to impart to the planets an ascending and descending motion according to their ascending and descending direction of motion in their orbits with respect to the ecliptic. The spaces allotted to each 9(1 planet are separated by small rivets or pins p running at right angles through the standard the conunon axis. All the planets are indicated by means of spheres with the exception of Saturn which is represented in connection with its ringsystem. 95
The zodiacal belt.The zodiacal belt surrounds the planets at the proper height and has at its center on its inner surface drawn by a special heavy line the ecliptic projected. The belt is large enough to permit all the planets to display their motions within. The ecliptic divides the zodiac into two equal parts onehalf extending north and the other south of it each generally considered to be S10º iu breadth. In circumference the zodiac is divided into twelve equal parts each one 30º in length within which I05 groups of stars are situated called constellations of the zodiac. The principal stars from first to fifth magnitude which compose these constellations are placed most approximately at their distance from the ecliptic termed "latitude" north and south and according to their longitude. All are given their names and those belonging to the same constellation are connected by leadlines. The encircling northern border of the zodiacal belt shows the Latin names of the natal ellas tions and signs of the ecliptic while on the southern border the degrees of longitude of the ecliptic are laid off.
The equinoctial or celestial equator.The equinoctial is represented by a narrow ring joined movably at the equinoctial points of the ecliptic to the zodiacal belt. It is divided in circumference into twentyfour equal parts representing the twentyfour hourcircles and serves to explain first the obliquity of the eclipticthe inclination of the plane of the equinoctial to the plane of the ecliptic23:'º second the precession of the equinoxes and third the right ascension and declination.
An extra terrestrial globe g representing the earth
is combined with a horizonring gt and a moon g2.
The terrestrial globe is made larger than the size used
among the planets in general and is furnished for the
purpose of illustrating the effects produced by the
5 earth's revolution around the sun its rotation on its
axis the inclined position of its axis towards its orbit
and the parallelism of the axis to itself. The phenom
ena which are conditioned by these relations are: the
change of seasons. variations in the lengths of the days
10 and nights varying distribution of light and heat to
variant places on the earth's surface and the continu
ode change of the aspect of the heavens. The globe
is connected to its arm in the same manner as the plan
ets which latter in order to give room for better dis
15 play are preferably removed before the extra terres
trial globe is adjusted on the upright standard s. The
moon g2 is supported on a curved arm g3 having a sleeve
on its inner end for permitting a circular and up and
down motion on the arm supporting the earth first
20 for illustrating the moon's revolution around the earth
and second for showing the inclination of its orbit
towards the ecliptic. The moon g2 is provided with a
hemispherical cap or shell g4 of celluloid or other ma
terial and of a shining color so as to cover her illumi
25 nated hemisphere and move around her axis so that
according to the moon's position with respect to sun
and earth the proper part of her illuminated half can
be turned towards the earth to illustrate the moon's
phases. By this combination of earth and moon the
30 different phases of the moon and eclipses of sun and
moon can be readily demonstrated. The horizonring
is represented by a flat ring the inner edge of which
encircles the terrestrial globe while the surfaces of the
horizonring show the azimuth divided into degrees.
35 The horizonring is connected with the terrestrial
globe by means of two springclasps g5 the one running
at right angles from the north point of the horizon 90º
southward on one side and the other running at right
angles from the south point of the horizonring 90º
40 northward to the middle of the globe as shown in Fig.
6. Both clasps or arms serve at the same time as in
dicators for the meridian their endpoints indicating
the zenith and nadir of the places for which the hori
zonring is adjusted. As the ring can be moved easily
45 over the surface of the globe it can be adjusted to the
horizon of any place on the same. The horizonring
serves for the purpose of demonstrating the causes
and effects of the daily changes of the sun's diurnal
arc its change of azimuth in rising and setting and of
50 altitude in culminating of explaining the difference
between sidereal and solar time of illustrating the
cause of the moon's daily later rising and setting the
difference of her sidereal and synodic revolution the
causes producing periodically high and low moons
55 and of showing the continuous change of the celestial
especially the zodiacal aspect in consequence of the
earth's rotating and revolving motion producing the
apparent diurnal revolution of the celestial sphere
around the earth from east to west. The different
relative positions of the terrestrial globe relatively to
the sun and moon are shown in dotted lines in Fig. 6
while in Fig. 7 a special arrangement of the terrestrial
globe is shown in which the basedisk is placed at an
angle of inclination to the horizontal frame so that
the sunsupporting standard is also placed out of the 65
vertical line and the earth is supported at the upper
end of the curved arm the lower end of which is guided
freely in a sleeve h of the moonsupporting arm so
that when the terrestrial globe is moved around the
sun it will assume the different positions by gravity 70
owing to the axial motion imparted to its movable
supportingarm. The detail of the horizonring as
detached from the terrestrial globe is shown in Fig. 9.
Planets and terrestrial globe combined with the
moon being properly adjusted to the planetarium 75
the true and apparent motions of the planets and the
sun the changing position of the earth's axis in its orbit
towards the sun and the motion of the moon with her
phases around the earth as well as the different rela
tions of the planets as seen from the sun (heliocentric) 80.
and as seen from the earth (geocentric) may be ex
plained by the teacher or followed by the student in
connection with the book of instructions which is fur
aished with the planetarium. The orbital points with
respect to the earth as perihelion aphelion vernal 85
and autumnal equinox and winter and summer sol
stice and with regard to the other planets as peri
helion and aphelion ascending and descending node
and greatest heliocentric latitude north and south can
be explained and illustrated. Most approximately 90
true longitudes of the planets for any day of the year
can be ascertained by their orbital points by means of
the mean daily motion of the planets within their
orbital sections as limited by two successive orbital
points as shown in the tables furnished especially for 95
that purpose and which also state the amount of change
in longitude of the orbital points during one sidereal
revolution ofthe planets so as to determine the degree
of longitude of the orbital points and time when
reached in the successive revolutions so that the student can obtain an accurate demonstration and clear conception of the true and apparent motions and configurations of the planets.
Having thus described my invention I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. A planetarium comprising an upright standard a stationary basedisk divided into concentric circles or dials a spherical body representing the sun supported at the upper end of the standard spheres representing the planets arms connected with said standard and supporting said spheres a zodiacbelt surrounding said planetary bodies and upright arms attached to the basedisk and to the zodiacbelt for supporting the latter.
2. A planetarium comprising an upright standard a stationary basedisk supported on said standard and containing concentric circles or dials for the seasons calendar ecliptic longitude and zodiac a sphere representing the sun carried at the upper end of the standard a plurality of spheres representing the planets angular arms connected with the standard and supporting said planets means for clamping or releasing said planetcarrying arms a zodiacbelt and an equinoxialring and upright arms for supporting said rings on the basedisk.
3. In a planetarium the combination with an upright
standard and a basedisk supported thereon of a terres trial globe an angular supportingarm connected with said
standard and supporting the globe a sphere representing
the sun located at the upper end of said standard a
sphere representing the moon a curved arm applied to
the globesupporting arm and supporting said sphere a horizonring encircling the terrestrial globe and spring
clasps for holding said horizonring on the terrestrial globe.
4. In a planetarium the combination with an upright
standard and a basedisk supported thereon of a spherical
5 body representing the sun at the upper end of the stand
ard a terrestrial globe an arm connecting said globe with
said standard a sphere representing the moon a curved
arm applied to the globesupporting arm and supporting
said sphere a horizonring encircling said sphere spring
10 clasps applied to the terrestrial globe and a hemispherical
shell pivoted to the axis of the moon and adapted to be turned on the same.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention I have signed my name in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
HERMAN' A. IIACKI'IIAG.
I'At r. Got:mu. HENRY J. SuiiruBrerl.